Photo 1. (a) Canal estates near Tweed, NSW and (b) view out to Sydney Harbour (photos by Emma Murray)
Many of the factors that degrade coastal environments are related to the size of the local human population (both resident and transient) . Those factors include the density of roads, housing and other infrastructure, and can contribute to the degradation of coastal waterways through:
The above impacts can give rise to eutrophication and runoff from acid sulfate soils and related issues (e.g. algal blooms, anoxic & hypoxic events, fish kills and shellfish closures), and can contribute to and to an overall reduction in biodiversity.
More information on coastal population as an indicator can be found in the Estuaries and the Sea volume of Environmental Indicators for National State of the Environment Reporting .