Mangroves and coastal saltmarsh of Victoria
distribution, condition, threats and management

Victoria’s mangroves and saltmarshes are misunderstood by land managers, under valued by the public and under threat from rising sea levels and coastal development. Professor Paul Boon from Victoria University led a large team of researchers from other institutions to just complete the first State-wide assessment of the wetlands that fringe the coast of Victoria. The project was funded by the Strategic Reserve of the National Heritage Trust and ran from 2008 to 2011. The 514 page report examines the diversity of wetland types and plant communities along the Victorian coast and provides analysis of the ecological condition and major threats to coastal wetlands in Victoria. Recommendations in the report include the reservation or purchase of environmental land to support the inland retreat of mangroves and saltmarshes. It also includes the first fine-scale mapping of all current mangrove and saltmarsh wetlands in Victoria. This report is available for download below on a chapter by chapter basis.

click to download the pdf fileSummary (PDF 243KB)
This work is copyright. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced by any process without prior written permission from Victoria University.
Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction and rights should be addressed to:
Professor Paul Boon
Institute for Sustainability and Innovation
Victoria University (Footscray Park campus)
PO Box 14428, MCMC Melbourne VIC 8001

click to download the pdf fileChapter 1: Literature review ( PDF 4MB)
Background to the study; What are mangroves and coastal saltmarsh?
Inundation regimes; Victorian mangroves; Victorian coastal saltmarsh;
Zonation, sedimentation and successional change; Water and salt relations;
Reproduction; Ecological values; Economic and social values; Threatening processes;
Spartina; Climate change; Ecological condition; Prior classification, mapping and inventory studies

click to download the pdf fileChapter 2: Management arrangements for Victorian mangroves and coastal saltmarsh ( PDF 574KB)
Introduction; Conservation status; Management arrangements – an overview
Some recent legal decisions with implications for mangroves and coastal saltmarsh
How can management arrangements be improved?
Need for active management

click to download the pdf fileChapter 3: Social and agency perceptions ( PDF 381KB)
Project publicity and communication
Workshops with state agencies
Community attitudes to mangroves and coastal saltmarsh

click to download the pdf fileChapter 4: Floristics and structure of saline coastal vegetation ( PDF 624KB)
Background and data interpretation
Data selection and analysis to revise current typology
A revised typology for EVC 9 Coastal Saltmarsh Aggregate

click to download the pdf fileChapter 5: Distribution, inventory and condition ( PDF 584KB)
Mapping mangrove and coastal saltmarsh – a background
Methods used to map current extent of mangroves and coastal saltmarsh
Mapping and inventory – summary of results
Current ecological condition; Distribution of Spartina in Victoria

click to download the pdf fileChapter 6: Mangroves and coastal saltmarsh – past and future ( PDF 756KB)
Pre-European distributions
The future for saltmarsh under rising sea levels – Western Port case study 293

click to download the pdf fileChapter 7: Management template ( PDF 1.5MB)
What needs to be in a management template?
Case-study site – Barwon River estuary
Legislation and policy background
Management issues

Chapter 8: Recommendations ( PDF 271KB)

References ( PDF 621KB)

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Appendix A: Project aims ( PDF 245KB)
Appendix B: Glossary of terms and abbreviations ( PDF 290KB)
Appendix C: Plant and animal names ( PDF 301KB)
Appendix D: Inventory of Victorian marine, estuarine and saltmarsh vascular plant species ( PDF 457KB)
Appendix E: Schematic representation of saline coastal vegetation ( PDF 346KB)
Appendix F: Descriptions of relevant plant communities ( PDF 2.3MB)

Appendix G: Rules for conversion between map units and Ecological Vegetation Classes (EVC) ( PDF 268KB)
Appendix H: GIS metadata ( PDF 260KB)
Appendix I: Vegetation condition assessment sheet ( PDF 258KB)
Appendix J: Suggested EVC benchmarks for condition assessments ( PDF 286KB)
Appendix K: Photograph credits ( PDF 233KB)

Saltmarsh mapping Download in PDF
Master map index
Corner Inlet & Gippsland Lakes_map index (Map sheets from 39 to 57, file size < 2MB)
East Gippsland map index (Map sheets from 57 to 64, file size < 2MB)
Port Phillip & Western Port map index (Map sheets from 13 to 38, 65, file size < 2MB)
Western Victoria map index (Map sheets from 1 to 12, file size < 2MB)

Spartina mapping Download in JPG
Anderson Inlet
Bass River
Corner Inlet (1); Corner Inlet (2)
Nooramunga Coast (1); Nooramunga Coast (2); Nooramunga Coast (3); Nooramunga Coast (4)
The Inlets

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Suggested citation

This report should be cited as:
Victorian Saltmarsh Study (2011). Mangroves and coastal saltmarsh of Victoria: distribution, condition, threats and management. Institute for Sustainability and Innovation, Victoria University, Melbourne. Paul I Boon, Tim Allen, Jennifer Brook, Geoff Carr, Doug Frood, Chris Harty, Jasmine Hoye, Andrew McMahon, Steve Mathews, Neville Rosengren, Steve Sinclair, Matt White and Jeff Yugovic.


Paul I Boon, Institute for Sustainability and Innovation, Victoria University (Footscray Park campus), PO Box 14428, MCMC Melbourne VIC 8001
Tim Allen, Caring for our Country Facilitator – Environment (Victoria) c/- Department of Sustainability and Environment, Level 3, 8 Nicholson Street, East Melbourne VIC 3002
Geoff Carr, Andrew McMahon and Steve Mathews, Ecology Australia, 88B Station Street, Fairfield VIC 3078
Doug Frood, Pathways Bushland and Environment, PO Box 360, Greensborough VIC 3088
Chris Harty, Chris Harty Planning and Environmental Management, PO Box 179, Camperdown VIC 3260
Jasmine Hoye and Jennifer Brook, Ipsos Eureka, Level 4, 493 St Kilda Road VIC 3004
Neville Rosengren, La Trobe University, Melbourne VIC 3086
Steve Sinclair and Matt White, Arthur Rylah Institute, Department of Sustainability and Environment, 123 Brown Street, Heidelberg VIC 3084
Jeff Yugovic, Biosis Research, 38 Bertie Street, Port Melbourne VIC 3207

logoes of contributors

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